Wednesday, December 21, 2011

Essay # 7B- Discretionary and Disposable

Essay #7B- Discretionary and Disposable
              Looking back on the art of the last 4,000 years that we have just explored and, if it can truly be considered an asset to humanity, how was it ever considered discretionary and, if ever, disposable?
                Part 1:
Summary:4,000 years of artwork is a lot to choose from.
Reason:I believe The reason This question would be asked is to interpret the question itself and understand both sides of it.
Purpose: The purpose of having to explore this essay question, is to also explore not just the art, but the different time periods that the works represent, and their significance in relation to one another.
Direction:I Looked both ways before crossing the road. There are always two sides to a story, and each rendition is only as clear as the artist creates it to be.
Impressions:I am blown away at the depth of thought I was reaching while answering this question.

                Part 2:
          I believe that art is as necessary to humanity as oxygen – not discretionary in the least. Most certainly it cannot be disposable either, but during wartime; supplies are supplies and your enemies are your enemies regardless of the art involved. From the Burned library in Alexandria to the battered Greek and Roman buildings, it is a great pity that such  priceless knowledge and beauty were lost, "disposed of."  We often tend to think of art as discretionary or unsubstantial because our most immediate needs are fulfilled not by art but by work. Yet, art is not discretionary, because without artful expression (which includes the activities we call “play”), life would consist only of work and other obligations, and a life void of art seems like something I could not endure. In addition to this insight, it is also true that art is one of the forms taken on by human communication; our ability to express ideas would be severely impeded without art, and in fact it is reasonable to assert that creatures with ability to communicate cannot be without art – because when we must communicate ideas that are too complex to be codified into language, we express through the various forms of art.

                  I feel art is more crucial than work in a human life, because I could live without working but I could not live without art. However, Working is imperative in order to sustain and maintain my life. When I work long hours, it is impossible not to notice the important role art plays in my day. Advertising, Entertainment, architecture, car design, Landscaping, Interior design and the list continues of everyday things that incorperate art into the equation.  I can wait a long time if I know my work day will end and leave me free to express myself through music or other forms of art.The moments we live for are the moments of creativity and spontaneity – joking with friends as we play with language, expressing ourselves through dance or music, trying to raise our children with artful finesse and creativity.  When I think of both my work and my art, I have to admit that art is an ever-present part of daily life. 

               In its many forms, artful expression is the creative act that gives rise to life itself, according to the creationists. Blogger Roland Chia points out that God's artful expression in His/Her act of creative expression is reflected in every church service and every gathering where works of art are linked to spirituality. He also points out that anthropologists have found art to exist in every human society that has been studied. 
                Moreover, art is a means of communication, just like writing.  The innovation of human language, especially written language, is what distinguishes us from the other creatures on this planet.  Art is what we use when we want to express ideas that represent things deeper than words can go. A Fine example of this would be the sculpture of St. Teresa in Ecstasy by Bernini.

                                                     (Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria in Rome.)
                When an idea is too abstract or profound to be captured by conventional language, we need to use art.  Therefore, it is reasonable to argue that art is as important as any other means of communication, and perhaps even more important. Musician and writer Ricardo Morales explains it this way: “Like it or not, we are part of society’s process of dreaming, thinking, and speaking to itself, reflecting on our past and finding new ways forward” (6).  In light of that insight, it is easy to understand the role played by art in human communication.     

                  So, the notion that art is crucial to human life can be supported multiple ways. Not only is it an Emotional outlet, but also has the importance of reflecting the ideals,cultural influences,and economical power and advances of the era in which it was created. After the First crusade, it was apparent that an Islamic Influence was conceived and incorporated in art and architecture. (Art History Fourth Edition, Volume 1; Page 15.)
(Trumeau of the south portal, Priory Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France c. 1115 - 30.)

Necessity is the heart of invention, so the need to express the images in our head, and even to keep warm can be met artistically. With art, Stories are crafted,told "in a way that is clear and compelling for the audience addressed."(Art History,Page 477.)

Works Cited
Chia, Roland. Christians Must Reflect on Meaning, Purpose of the Arts in Human Life. 2011. Retrieved Dec 19, 2011 from: 

Morales. The Importance of Being Artist. 1990. Retrieved Dec 20, 2011 from: 

    Photo Credits: 
St. Theresa In ecstasy ; (

Trumeau of the south portal; (

Friday, November 18, 2011

Essay 7a- faith and belief

Essay 7a:
 Faith and Belief- Is Art in any way, an intrinsic part of,or a primary factor in, religion or religious expression and if so, how did it specifically play a part in the development of Christianity?

Answer Part One:
                Summary: I quite liked this essay question because I have a pretty unique view on religion.I respect and understand it's reasons and ways, but having earth-based beliefs brings me to conclusions that may be controversial. A different perspective! excitement!With respect and taste, I once wrote a paper declaring my independence from organized religion. The art, however, is key to religion. This topic interests me,and I hope to bring  my ideas ful circle with the lessons from class.
               Reason: Art in any society but ESPECIALLY the one to which we're referring, has timeless importance and impact, and that, I believe, was the idea we hunted for regarding this question.
               Purpose: I believe the purpose in the asking of this question is to deepen our knowlege of both art and religion. Religion; belief, is a powerful force and it is important to understand how the art correlates,and even carries, this force.
                Direction: I always face the spiritual direction in my essays , but i'm led to a more reasonable outlook this time around. creation has a reason, and reason is function, and function is followed by form,which in this case has a deep seeded function. 
                 Impressions: Referring to recent class discussion, I repeatedly was reminded of religious icons being compared to superheroes and it was a bit amusing to me.

Answer Part 2:

"Without art,The crudeness of reality would make the world unbearable."-George Bernard Shaw

                           This quote in itself can answer this essay question, but I will elaborate. Symbolism and images have enlightened the souls and carried on the devotion of humankind from the nomadic times to the present day. We have found ourselves, and we are a part of something epically larger and transcended. To the cavemen, it was the earth. Hence, depictions of animals and so forth. As our mental capacity evolved, we became aware of space;the heavens,and spirits. We adopted beliefs that made the other side of death less frightening. These beliefs came from and are carried on in our stories,our heritage. How we view them in our own perspective gives us the power, gives us the control we have such a need for, to simply, believe. To put our faith in something with vast depth and meaning.(Art History,P. 224)

             In Art History(4th ed. vol.1), it says that "throughout the history of christian art...." but even in Egyptian, Greek and Roman art(etc..), you can see two distinct ways that art portrayed religion.  "The narrative urge to tell a good story whose moral or theological implications often have instructional or theological value,and the desire to create iconic image that symbolize the core concepts and values of the developing religious tradition. In both cases,the works of art take on meaning only in relation to the viewers' stored knowledge of Christian stories and beliefs."(Art history, P. 224)
(Herbert James Draper,1898

                   Art is indeed imperative to both religion and religious expression. The scenes and figures portrayed influence the masses as a kind of propaganda. Similar to the monks who would copy books, depicting scenes of christ would keep the knowledge,the story, alive.  In this case, Christianity, it was to spread the messages of God in hopes you would be taken under the church's wing. God was someone to turn to whether you were sick, cold,hungry,or a sinner needing to repent. Referring back to class notes,  christ was given an almost superhero-type persona. and thus, knowing you were being watched over and protected by this "savior",made you feel safety amidst the confusion and chaos that was life.
                      because of his extraordinary act of selflessness(self-sacrifice,etc.) he embodies these traits. "A boldly striding Christ- brilliantly outfitted in a pure white that makes him shine to prominence within the fresco program-lunges to rescue Adam and Eve from their tombs, pulling them upward with such force that they seem to float airborne under the spell of his power"(Art history,Fourth edition,Volume 1.Page 256)This in reference to the Anastasis in the church of the monestary of Christ in Chora.

(photo credit:

Art is expression,simply put. it expresses our love,devotion, suffering,and imagination.  Surely it is imperative to life, to have art.

Thursday, November 17, 2011

the world is negative space we put the proportion and abstract the lines. the moon is washed by the clouds as they fly by,black in front of the silver sphere. my mind becomes a sort of catacomb i can... i can stay here to enjoy my time. i can unravel and unwind without all these eyes stinging,mouths hissing and snarling. oh darling, my my. where is my mind?

Tuesday, November 8, 2011

take it or leave it


is having transcended. Or.. is Fearlessness ?  

When you finally realize the bone-crushing truth that we are NOT in control, and come to terms with it. ..

Will you find
Liberation or paranoia?

Is it strength that makes you numb or human

Sunday, November 6, 2011

Essay #3a : This and That

ESSAY #3a This and That
QUESTION: How are Egyptian, Greek and Roman art and architecture both interconnected and yet independent and; How did they collectively or independently affect the development of art in the Early Christian period?
Picture and cite source :""

Answer; Part One- *Summary:During my research, I became more familiar with the styles of art and their significant changes during each time period in the classical era.I had to look a little deeper as to what the common goals were in the creation of these pieces of art and architecture,helping me understand and find a bit of direction in my writing.
*Reason:I realized that the reason this question was asked was to stretch our perspective,and also to help us always find the important connections in the past.
*Direction:To find my conclusions, I started from the (almost) beginning in ancient Egypt, and followed the fundamentals through Greece and Rome. With this insight and knowledge, I could connect ideas for the essay while researching and viewing early Christian artwork. Everything in Art History seems to come full circle.
*Impressions: I was extremely impressed with Greco- Roman art first and foremost.My last essay was clear enough about how much I appreciate the Ancient Egyptian artwork. The development of realism is so profound and beautiful , i was just about in love with so many pieces from Greece and Rome. Not to mention the landscape is so breathtaking that you wouldnt know and couldnt care if the Erechtheion was made of popsicle sticks. (Of course I care!) A funny moment that occured was when I got this Cake song stuck in my head that goes "Sheep go to heaven,Goats go to hell" for the chorus. Laugh it up, and onward we go with the essay!

"Evolution from the Kouroi(600 BC) to the Hellenistic Apollo Belvedere(320 BC)
Evolution/Developmet of realism: 1)c. 600 BC, 2) c.575-550 BC  3)c.560 BC,  4)c. 530-520 BC, 5)c.515-500 BC, 6)c. 485 BC, 7)c.320 BC"
Picture and cite source :""

Part 2-
                   Taking into perspective the advances of artistic design and skill from the times of the Anient Egyptians all the way through greece and Rome, it is clear to see their influences on early christian art as well as modern. It all comes full circle and can be linked to the past. One of my favorite poets, Henry wadsworth Longfellow, wrote this verse in his Psalm of life;
                                         "Art is long, and time is fleeting."
 I believe this to be so true. Art of any medium and style has origins dating as far back as prehistory. Time seems to go so fast and it's like Art history keeps repeating itself, sometimes even back to the cave period.
                  Once people began to settle down rather than migrate with their food source, civilization is born. We used the earth,our true home, to build basic shelter. Then we wanted to make it pretty too! Symbols were the first universal way of communicating ideas. Humans shaped belief systems,and created beautiful places of worship to appease their gods. Now art ties in by means of the adornment of houses and sacred buildings,which reaches beyond the basic necessity for shelter. The spiritual ties that connect us to the earth make us want to leave beautiful reminders of our legacy here. The devotion to a higher power was a constant motivation for the Egyptians,Greeks,and a little less for the Romans. This of course, carried on into early christianity when religion was being pushed into the picture.
                  Unfortunately, Humans are a volitle species and we can also make war,probably with more ease than peace. It's a crying shame how much knowledge we've lost on account of senseless violence. it makes sense then, that the artwork least likely to be destroyed and for us to discover would be on walls and floors, as part of the architecture itself. (class notes reference)This piece is amazing and clever,one of my personal favorites.

"The Unswept Floor", Roman Mosaic, 2nd century CE
"Roman mosaic based on an earlier painting. It depicts the remnants of a dinner party scattered all over the floor of a dining room. Do you see the mouse?"(Image and cite source: )
                    I literally am astounded at the cleverness of this mosaic! not only is it witty, it is also fabulously detailed and styled.I find it amazing how the Greeks and romans had the art of mosaic so precise,down to shading and dimension.
                       It seems unnecessary to separately categorize the art and architecture created by all three of these cultures, because they are commonly one and the same! many greek and roman artworks were part of the archetecture, inside buildings and adorning the walls and floors. It became in most cases that the buildings themselves were total works of art, from the pillars outside to the mosaics and frescoes inside. Caryatids,mosaics and friezes are prime examples of this concept of a crossbreed of art and architecture.

"Part of the Erechtheion: The Caryatids Photo:T Olivier 420-4006 B.C.
                 In the part of the Acropolis held to be the most sacred; the place where goddess Athena had caused her most sacred emblem, the olive tree, to sprout."
                       Both their art and architecture are exquisite and well advanced in many ways. The same rules of design,or order that please the eye in artwork, they used in buildings as well. The detail of the mosaics and sculptures is magnificent,so realistic you want to actually feel the fabric and hair of the figures and just touch the ultra-intricate reliefs.
we spoke in class about how art can be anything from a pyramid to wallpaper designs. The egyptians originally found a balance that combined the two elements. The Greeks, in my opinion, mastered this and romans then adapted and elaborated upon .With each era in art came new refinements and methods: growth. Reason is an important factor in comprehending artwork. what the artist was trying to capture,wether it was the mightiness of a ruler or god, or the perfection in the movement of a garment , direction is imperative.

               The Egyptians used their art for documentation and religious/political esteem. The greeks first explored texture, movement,and idealism. "Where earlier artists sought to codify a generalized artistic ideal,Hellenistic artists shifted focus to the individual and the specific."(Art History 4th edition Volume 1, Page 149.)Here you start to see emotions and personl struggles of the human condition(Art history,page 149. The romans were not so bohemian in their ways, but more serious and factual. This is, I believe, why the rise of organized religion stuck with them. Then, "In the east, Classical traditions and styles were cultivated to become an enduring element of Byzantine art."(Art History,Page 215)
"Christian art and architecture entered a new phase when Constantine granted the people of the Roman Empire freedom of religion. Sophisticated philisophical and ethical systems developed,incorperating many ideas from Greek and Roman Pagan thought."(Art history,Page 226) Once given the freedom to, the people just naturally uncovered their roots. Your roots below you outlive and outstand the rule over you.

Friday, October 21, 2011

Essay #2B Completeness and truth

Essay #2B:Completeness and Truth
How is it possible that what the egyptians considered "completeness",could be misinterpreted as crude,naive,or unrealistic and how does it affect the "truth" contained in their art?
                Part One: Summary:I experienced many similar facts while researching ancient egypt, but the facts are not what you,as the reader,are looking for in this piece. I had to take in the symbolism,ideology,and proverb,and blend it evenly with common knowledge of mankind,Artwork and design. It all comes down to,"C'mon,people, get the big picture." I kept thinking to myself "Who would criticize this work??"
Reason:I believe the reason this question was asked of us would be because ancient Egypt is a very important part of art history,influencing almost countless cultures including Greek, Roman, and African. Art History ALSO happens to be the name of this particular course. What a coincidence!
Purpose: Similar to Ancient egyptian art, this question had a higher purpose intended for it. This was to REALLY get a grasp on these ancient people's outlook on life, how their artwork represented this, and the way that their convention worked and lasted.It's the comprehension of knowlege and insight that I believe you are seeking.
Direction:During my research I found myself more completely understanding Egyptian Ideals,and design tactics. Thus, I approached with a newer respect and perspectives.
Impressions:I've known since elementary school that the Egyptians used symbols to communicate thoughts and happenings, and of course built pyramids. But looking at the bigger picture, everything that they created was devout, fantastic art that represented things deeper than the eyes alone can see.

Part 2:
      If you look at works of the Ancient Egyptians, in a literal sense, just LOOK at it and seek no knowledge further than plain appearance, You will not be able to comprehend it for all it is and stands for. Yeah, it’s big and magnificent, and yes, it’s pretty and fancy. Or you may think,"These cartoons and symbols make no sense to me..." But why?  In order to understand Egyptian art, you must also comprehend the timeless style and reflection of culture as well. When in observation of any art or artistic creation, ancient or contemporary, One will eventually find themselves asking the question that defines life: WHY?(Referring to notes and discussions)among all the possibilities and theories, misconceptions and opinions will of course be made. It is what it is, History and artwork in one. Ancient art that, being art, is still always open for interpretation.         

                One could,perhaps, argue that the styling and representation of figures done by the Ancient Egyptians was simplistic or childlike. I believe, on the contrary, that the work seems perfectly balanced for all it truly had to say. Also, the attention to detail of their sculpture/jewelry/furniture is undoubtedly present,while the paintings are more simplistic. The reason being, is the purpose of the paintings themselves. These scenes were not "fairy tales", or "decoration,"on contrary to popular belief. They were of utter importance to the Egyptians, depictions of physical and spiritual happenings that they firmly believed in.
               Form, from what I've learned, Usually follows function. The messages had to reach not only the upper class,but the not-so-literate masses as well. How do you reach someone who cannot read? draw them a picture! A bit simple but practical, is it not? Now everybody can know that the tomb they are in is going to leave them cursed. No matter the artistic style of it all, the paintings and carved scenes fulfilled their purpose of documenting the happenings and greatness of the Ancient rulers on their path to godliness(class reference).
                  While researching The Ancient Egyptians, I learned about a set of conventions that was used for their art; a set of  calculated guidelines to follow regarding text and image that was extremely effective in my eyes. The Egyptians had a uniform way to depict and space things in their artwork, all elements being significant. (Art history,P.53)With so many things to document, it was the wisest choice they could have made design-wise.The conventions used(such as proportion and spacing) helped to translate ideas more effectively. For example, the sizes of a figure signified their importance and even shoewear and stance effected the meaning of a scene.(Art history, P.52)
Another example;"The lotus was commonly used in art as a symbol of Upper Egypt. It was often shown with its long stems intertwined with papyrus reeds (a symbol of Lower Egypt) as a representation of the unification of the two lands."(
Egyptian cup from approximately 800 BC

A painted carving found in the corridor of Tutankhamun's tomb shows the head of a young boy in a representation of the infant sun god, Nefertem, arising from the blue lotus which, itself, grew out of the primordial ocean."(1332-1322 BCE)Photo credit:
                  The characteristic simple, yet accurate  style used by the ancient Egyptian artists inspires and intrigues both artists and historians even to the present day. The symmetry and representation of physical characteristics has adhered to countless cultures that the Egyptians came in contact with, where it eventually evolved and gained different attributes.(reference to class notes and discussion)A good example of this style’s appearance in other cultures is this greek vase.
(Early greek painting,800 BCE)
Photo courtesy of

                “In Their world-view, the movements of heavenly bodies, the workings of gods,and the humblest of human activities were all believed to be part of a balanced and harmonious grand design.” (Art History, p.50) The common goal for Egyptians was keeping a balance in every aspect of life.  Their balance was found in the completeness of all things in this world and the next. In reference to class notes and discussion, they sought to mesh together this life with the afterlife seamlessly. The egyptians were an extremely devout, orderly and communal people, and this they expressed through their art and architecture(which is art in itself). Overall, it seems their society worked like a machine-everyday life was systematic like their art. Everybody had their place in the social hierarchy, that’s how it was and the way that got things done. Temples had to be built, priests had to attend to them, and everybody’s goal and focus was on the ruler’s transcention and pleasing the gods. They appreciated blessings given to them from nature,so they paid homage in form of offerings and tribute. From The vigilant work of the pyramids to the intricacy of jewelry and amulets, all was done with mostly Devine purpose and a sense of mysticism. The pyramids rose up closer to the sun, connecting the earth further to the sky. Meanwhile, Sphinx were the Giant eloquent guardians. However, if you look at these glorious structures with no concept of what they really are, they remain just ancient buildings in the desert.
                                                                   (Pyramids of Giza)
Photo credit:(

                   Some claim that the ancient Egyptian style of figure is crude,but this is a matter of opinion. This was a culture that “favoured order and form over creativity and artistic expression.” ( Their main focus was on the bigger picture, however, and that dominated over the importance of beauty and detail. In each picture,every symbol and line had a reason to be,a story each their own. Although,It is hard to argue that detail was overlooked considering the deep symbolism and history within each character and picture. They were concerned with the pictures as a whole; balanced and complete. Although simple in form, it was the function that was relevant.
The ancient Egyptians proved to be ahead of their time, their Philosophies and tales living on long after the entire civilization.The legacy they’ve left behind makes them what they sought to be- immortal.

Friday, September 30, 2011

ESSAY #1A~Them and Us

Part One:Experience

When compiling my thoughts on This question, The picture became so large in my head that my thoughts became scattered and I immediately had to scribble away and actually rearrange all the blurbs to compile.It's amazing but they fit in the end. I was brought back to many class discussions and powerpoint notes,and these connections were excellent and helped my thought process flow and build.

*Reason: I believe The reason this question would be asked, is to really get down to earth and put some serious thought into why humans create artistic works. This question gives you the chance to get insight from your own answer. It pertains to this class because the point is to look in perspective at the culture, beliefs, ways and reasons behind art, not just the names,dates,and places.

*Purpose: The purpose of this question could be to have us delve into our knowledge,and connect it in new ways.The comparison of art in simplistic society vesus a technologic age really helps you see the purity that art in any form really contains.

*Direction: I was brought to a full circle in my essay question-anwering,back to the first day of class lookin at the bigger picture and reasons for creation of artwork. I went in a broad yet focused direction,if that makes any sense whatsoever.

*Impressions: I was truly amazed at the artistic capacity of the prehistoric artists! The shading and detail are amazing. I am in awe at the intricate studies of animals done with REAL charcoal (haha) and other various herbs and minerals.The innovation of these people is striking because of what they had to work with and how well the art is done.

("Photograph of a group of lions, painted on the walls of Chauvet Cave in France, at least 27,000 years ago.")

Part 2:Answer

               When comparing the prehistoric people/artists to those of modern times, I find myself pondering both deep rooted similarities, and differences based on the advance in technology.The more obvious similarities are the innovation in creating mediums."In some places in prehistoric caves three stages of image creation can be seen:engraved lines using flakes of flint,followed by a color wash of ocher and manganese,and a final engraving to emphasize shapes and detail"(ART HISTORY,Fourth Edition Volume I, Page 10) A simpler example using a modern technique is the construction of furniture using cardboard,which i've experienced firsthand in a class at the CCRI Flanagan campus. Artists, wether pre-historic or in the here and now, will always find a way to express themselves and something to do it with.

                In art, your perspective on not just the medium, but the expression itself is key. This is why there are many reasons for the creation of pieces of art throughout history. If it were not open to interpretation, it would not be art.I believe we discussed similar ideas in class. The cave dwellers did paintings and carvings as a way to create a communal bond, and perhaps bring fertility to the animals they hunted for food.(ART HISTORY,Fourth Edition Volume I, Page 8)Other reasons for prehistoric art could be to record inventory and document stories and family histories. Many drawings and paintings look like studies of animals an art teacher would have you do,or just the wanderings of a creative mind being sketched out.Modern art portrays life,and whatever is in the artist's head. When you boil it back down to just being art as self-expression,it translates to the need for self-actulization.(reference to class notes)

                 When creating images, making something out of nothing but your hands and imagination, it is a way of exploring and discovering the unknown. This unknown being the spiritual connection we as humans have to our world. The Earth is truly fascinating to behold, so it is no wonder so many portray it's intense beauty through art.This is where we belong. Long before the scrapers blocked the horizon and highways pushed over the plains, it was us in harmony with our earth mother. This Bison carving in clay floor is a prime example of art and nature in perfect harmony.

( Bison carving, Unbaked clay, Artist Unknown,13,000 BCE)

                   "Faith is to believe what you do not see; The reward of faith is to see what you believe."Saint Augustine,Bishop of Hippo 354-430 CE. I believe art is a way to do this, to take control of that of which we do not know and, like magic, make things appear. Control is another thing that we as humans need a sense of to be happy in life.
                     Our belief in this belonging has been the the driving force behind creation of all kind dating back to pre history. Knowing we belong gives us the sense of security that we need in order to be happy and fulfilled.( It also helps us to answer the age-old question: Who Am I?(class notes reference)When we create art, the piece does not only reflect the image or culture but a piece of ourselves as well. Our own stories connect us to the works and that,in a way, makes us live forever.
                        It is undeniable that the artists of pre-history and ourselves as modern artists in a completely new era still have many artistic similarities. We may have much more available to us to work with, as you can see in this picture of Christo's Surrounded Islands, but the same strive is there to express and feel we have an impact philisophically,spiritually,or physically in our world.

                                             (1983 - Surrounded Islands,fabric and earth, Florida, 1980 by Christo and Jeanne-Claude)

Sunday, September 25, 2011


We crave expression,like wanting to scream. We want to make visible the silence of harbored emotions about ourselves and the world(society) around us.Art is a fickle creature,versitile and also elusive. Yet as artists we find somewhere in the chaos of creativity,a balance,a perfection.

Saturday, September 24, 2011

There are FOURTEEN TOPIC QUESTION ESSAYS to select from:
  • STUDENTS must select any FIVE of the Topic Question Essays to answer and submit as a Written Essay.
  • The challenge of the Topic Question Essays are in:
    • Answering the question to the best of your ability, which also requires you to:
    • Follow the Essay Format to the letter
    • Reference the notes you take in class
    • AS WELL AS – Read your text, do web research, find, understand and cite your sources to support your Topic Question Essay answer
      • Write clearly and concisely
      • Use correct grammar and spelling (use your Spelling & Grammar